Data-Driven Inference, Reconstruction, and Observational Completeness of Quantum Devices

Michele Dall’Arno (National University of Singapore), Francesco Buscemi (Nagoya University), Alessandro Bisio (Università degli studi di Pavia), Alessandro Tosini (Università degli studi di Pavia)

The range of a quantum measurement is the set of outcome probability distributions that can be produced by varying the input state. We introduce data-driven inference as a protocol that, given a set of experimental data as a collection of outcome distributions, infers the quantum measurement which is, i) consistent with the data, in the sense that its range contains all the distributions observed, and, ii) maximally noncommittal, in the sense that its range is of minimum volume in the space of outcome distributions. We show that data-driven inference is able to return a measurement up to symmetries of the state space—as it is solely based on observed distributions—and that such limit accuracy is achieved for any data set if and only if the inference adopts a (hyper)-spherical state space (for example, the classical or the quantum bit). 


When using data-driven inference as a protocol to reconstruct an unknown quantum measurement, we show that a crucial property to consider is that of observational completeness, which is defined, in analogy to the property of informational completeness in quantum tomography, as the property of any set of states that, when fed into any given measurement, produces a set of outcome distributions allowing for the correct reconstruction of the measurement via data-driven inference. We show that observational completeness is strictly stronger than informational completeness, in the sense that not all informationally complete sets are also observationally complete. Moreover, we show that for systems with a (hyper)-spherical state space, the only observationally complete simplex is the regular one, namely, the symmetric informationally complete set.